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We will be most grateful for any comments you wish to make. They should be addressed to Contributions by authors will be especially welcome. 

Any substantial contribution to a new document or field will be included together with the name of the contributor after due checking. 

    * In order not to work in vain, first check that your contribution is not already included in BITRA. Of course, any complementary information or any correction to existing entries will be welcome.
    * If you are sending additional information (and not a new entry), please warn us at the beginning of your contribution, e.g. “Entry already in BITRA. Only the abstract is new”.
    * Only published texts are valid (not forthcoming or unpublished lectures or conference papers or photocopies). PhD theses are also welcome because they can always be found at the corresponding university library. They are the only exception to this rule, but not MA or graduate theses.
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    * Quality is much more important than quantity. Data must have been checked personally and entries should be as complete as possible. A simple copy and paste from bibliographical references is very prone to error, since they often contain mistakes. If you do not have direct access to the publication, it is usually easy to check and complete the information on the Internet through library catalogues, or the corresponding journal or publisher. Also, providing an abstract is especially useful, even if it is just the publisher’s blurb, although it will always be much better if it is the author’s or yours.
    * When sending your contributions, do not use attachments. Simply copy them as a normal part of your email.
    * If you have any doubt, please consult similar entries in BITRA. If still in doubt, do not hesitate to get in touch with Javier Franco (


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SUBJECTS= [use your own keywords. We will translate them into BITRA’s language]
AUTHORS= [surname, first name of the first author; other authors, if any, in their normal order. If an editor, add (ed.) or (eds.) - e.g. Johnson, Mary; José Pla Martínez & John Smith (eds.)]
YEAR= [if possible, always the first edition; if it is a newspaper article: Day-month-year]
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TYPE= [book, chapter, article, Ph.D. thesis, journal]
ISBN= [with no hyphens]
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AVAILABILITY= If the publication is freely available on the Internet, state this by means of the keyword: "Open access".
TABLE OF CONTENTS= [include only the main chapters. If a collective book with less than 30 contributions, include them all. If there are more than 30 just give the main parts the book is divided into]
ABSTRACT=  [state whether the abstract is yours or the author’s, publisher’s, etc. (Source: Author / Publisher / John Doe). It must be non-evaluative and contain between 50 and 150 words. Ideally, it should be in English, but it can also be written in the same language as the publication you have described.]
COMMENTS=  [if it is a chapter from an edited book, include here the relevant data still missing: (In: editors (eds.), year, Book title) -  E.g. In: Bel, Edith Le (ed.) 1995. ‘La masque et la plume: traducir, reflexiones, experiencias y prácticas.’ If a paper from a conference, give the basic data (name of conference, place, date). If a translation, include the translator’s name. If there are several editions, state how many and when. etc.]
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS=  [“Record / Abstract / Whatever supplied by (your name)” If you wish, there is no problem in adding the name of your institution or research project or association. Normally, if you are also the author of the publication, you will not want your name mentioned here.]


SUBJECTS= Legal. Canada. Technical.  French. English.
AUTHOR= Pigeon, Louis-Philippe
YEAR = 1982
TITLE = "La traduction juridique. L'équivalence fonctionnelle" [Legal translation. Functional equivalence]
PLACE= Montréal
PUBLISHER = Linguatech
PAGES= 271-281
TYPE = Chapter
ABSTRACT = In Canada, legal translation has acquired a new dimension under the impulse of the Official Languages Act enacted some ten years ago. Instead of a bare minimum of French mostly of poor quality, there is now at the federal level a determined effort towards linguistic equality followed by similar efforts of variable importance in three provinces.
   Legal terms present an exceptional difficulty due to fundamental differences between the French Civil law and the English Common law systems. For a few expressions such as 'Common law' and 'Equity' which are definitely untranslatable and without any equivalent there seems to be no alternative to the use of the English words in the French versions of statutes, judgments and other
legal documents. However a generalized use of this method would not be acceptable. Hence it  becomes necessary to translate by words conveying an approximately equivalent legal concept. Care must be taken to avoid literal translations which would not convey a proper meaning such as 'biens réels' and 'biens personnels' for 'real property' and 'personal property', 'biens-fonds' and
'biens mobiliers' should be used. [Source: Author]
COMMENTS= In: Gémar, Jean-Claude (ed.) 1982. 'Langage du droit et traduction: Essais de jurilinguistique.'
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS= Record supplied by Roxana Antochi.

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